Makhana: The Culinary White Gold


From a humble fisherman’s sustenance to Janmashtami prasad to the darling of gourmet tables, how did makhana — the superfood of Mithila — become a byword for wellness and indulgence?

December 2021: When the Geographical Indications Registry (GIR) granted the GI tag to Bihar Makhana calling it ‘Mithila Makhana’, few were surprised. After all, 80 percent of our makhana is produced in Bihar, which also holds the record of supplying the king-size quantity of the 52,000-plus shipments of fox nuts that leave our ports annually.

Makhana, an Indian superfood, got the GI tag in 2021. Image: Shutterstock/Indianstyle.

What did the GI Tag garner? Two things: first, getting the laurel to the erstwhile kingdom of Mithila that has been producing and exporting (Yes, India plays a huge role in popularizing fox nuts and its varied usage) some of the finest makhanas since the beginning of the Silk Route; and two, bringing this neolithic era superfood once again to the fore globally, especially in the last two years.

For India though, it was a one-nut-suits-all kind of reminder. Makhana, lotus seed or gorgon nut needs little introduction to the Indian palate. Much like the puffed rice, makhana too has been an inseparable part of our culinary ledger both as nature’s ready-to-eat snack and in various culinary formats including the popular kheer, as the crunch in mutton or even as the all-loved Makhana Paag that is a Janmashtami special, and as a wellness food that even Gautam Buddha endorsed.

Makhana—the nut that suits all

Revered in the Samhitas as in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for its nutritive superpowers, the fox nut has been a part of quite a few therapies as well, and this included the traditional snack trail made by combining a bevy of indigenous nuts, seeds and dry fruits tossed in ghee, khand (mishri) and hint of pepper with makhana as the main ingredient. The trail though rich in calories till date is considered to be the best nosh for all kinds of cravings and is happily recommended not just for pregnant women and new mothers, but those with any form of lifestyle or stomach-related ailments.

As a low-carb, low-sugar, low-GI food, makhana is possibly the only ‘no-guilt’ indulgence that doesn’t need portioning. It has this timer, says nutritional therapist Shaveta Bhassin, “that stops you from going overboard and yet keeps you full for a substantial amount of time besides providing R&R to the body, especially during the rainy season and post that.”

Makhana, especially as a kheer, has deep associations with janamashtmi.  Image: shutterstock/stockimagefactory.  com.
Makhana, especially as a kheer, has deep associations with Janamashtmi. Image: Shutterstock/StockImageFactory.com.

It is these virtues that made makhana, otherwise a neutral-tasting ingredient, a staple among fishermen, farmers, traders, commoners, and kings alike, who used it as a power meal when on the road. Makhana also earned a prime spot as a prasad, especially as a favorite of Lord Krishna who is said to be close to the farmers and herdsmen and hence enjoyed their dishes. A prove of this, says Chef Akshraj Jodha, Executive Chef, ITC Grand Bharat, “is that even today for Janmashtami, a festival that chimes the new season, makhana is one of the chief ingredients that is used across all offerings, be it the kheer, meet the makhane or the delicious mewa paag.”

Just imagine, says Chef Jodha, “an ingredient that once processed serves you as an instant food that can sustain you through a long journey, can take on any flavour, mild, delicate, or otherwise and elevate it, and one that is an easy alternative not just for adding a new element of deliciousness into a dish but one that can alter a dish without effecting the taste or the texture. Makhana back in the day – and even today – was like having a Sōhei in the kitchen arsenal.”

Primed for taste

A curious example of fox nut’s wonderment is the kheer, continues the culinary custodian, “where makhana, which is added towards the end, not only lends it a rich, creamy texture but also makes for a delicious treat for those who have dietary restrictions. Makhana’s versatility also makes it a wonderful ‘gluten-free’ option in many dishes, especially chapatis. Roast and pulverise it into a flour and it can be added not just to curries for consistency but also be used as a traditional flour.”

Chef manish mehrotra, who grew up in bihar, is a champion of makhana.  This is the maple makhana chikki at indian accent.
Chef Manish Mehrotra, who grew up in Bihar, is a champion of makhana. This is the maple makhana chikki at Indian Accent.

Like Chef Jodha’s rotla, a traditional Rajasthani roti, which is made with makhana instead of wheat at ITC Grand Bharat. Or as Dahi Bara, says Chef Manish Mehrotra, Culinary Director, Indian Accent, who uses the bigger size kernels as an alternative to baras in the dish by roasting them to get that interesting texture. And as the crunch in the mutton curry of Chef Ravi Tokas, Executive Chef, Parat, where he tosses the fox nut with a light caramelised coating made with jaggery and pepper to give the curry its interesting bite and richness. In fact, Chef Tokas says, “using makhana to give texture to an otherwise monotonous gravy dish has been an age-old technique used in the kitchens of the erstwhile Delhi Sultanate. This addition of roasted, and at times flavoured, makhana added a new taste dimension to the dish and helped create dishes like the sabz milan makhana.”

Mix vegetable tart with makhana brittle topping at indian accent.
Mix vegetable tart with makhana brittle topping at Indian Accent.

Concurs Chef Pradeep Khosla, VP, Alcor Jamshedpur, who often uses makhana to lend a dimensional contrast to a dish, especially when two of the dishes have a common flavor matrix like his signature dish, Channa Gosht. The dish, says Chef Khosla, “is inspired by the kaju matar makhana where fox nuts not only elevate the jugalbandi of two distinct-flavoured ingredients but also creates the contrasting neutral space for a palate to enjoy the nuances of kaju and matar individually. Plus, it also helps create this rich gravy. The lightly salted makhana does the same in Channa Gosht as well where it lends this amazing crunchy-chewy texture to the dish and compliments the lamb kofte, creating a delicious bite.”

Makhana’s many shades of goodness

Makhana’s ability to deliver in all formats, in fact, plays a decisive role in not just its traditional usage but also modern adaptation where fox nuts have been a part of various innovations that, says Chef Sabyasachi Gorai, Founder, Fabrica By Saby, “have used this Neolithic Era’s foraged food both for its novelty, goodness and the fact that it has an unmatched ability to play out the flavors.”

Chef sabyasachi gorai's ponchiki uses makhana paste as the base.
Chef Sabyasachi Gorai’s Ponchiki uses makhana paste as the base.

A prove of this is Chef Gorai’s Ponchiki, where the gooey makhana paste becomes an easy foundation to pair a variety of different flavours, says Chef Gorai, “not just chocolate but those with delicate notes like roselle, rose, blue pea flower, kewra and as sandalwood.” In fact, recently for a pop-up, Chef Gorai created a platter of Ponchiki with fillings that ranged from a mild rose-scented custard to Indian-styled kewra with one common base for all — the makhana paste created the same way as it is done for chinese moon cake.

Interestingly, Chef Gorai isn’t the only one who finds makhana, which he terms as ‘white gold’, one of the most fascinating yet lesser explored indigenous ingredients. Executive Chef Yogender Pal, Function Specialist, Culinary, South-West Asia, Grand Hyatt Kochi, uses makhana to not just prime up their pralines for special occasions but also as a base for their Berliners to give variation to the German classic. Says Chef Pal, “the beauty of makhana in its paste form is that it can create this gooey contrast to all flavors bringing in a kind of balminess to an otherwise overpowering flavor too.” A case in point is his signature dish, the Salted Caramel Berliner, where the makhana addition elevates the taste of the rock salt.

Chef rajiv vimal's makhana and almond granola bar and kumudh ka halwa at the leela ambience convention hotel delhi.
Chef Rajiv Vimal’s Makhana and Almond Granola Bar and Kumudh Ka Halwa at The Leela Ambience Convention Hotel Delhi.

It is this facet of makhana that also has inspired Chef Rajiv Vimal, Executive Chef, The Leela Ambience Convention Hotel Delhi, to create Makhana and Almond Granola Bar and Kumudh Ka Halwa. Curated as an ode to the hotel’s signature collection Tishya, says Chef Vimal, “the dessert is an ode not just to Tishya’s fragrance of lotus and neelakurinji flowers, but to the many ways I had makhana as a kid, especially around this time of the year when one constantly craved sweet things. The beauty of the Makhana and Almond Granola Bar and Kumudh Ka halwa is that while it doesn’t nix on any of the richness we associate with sweets, it is healthier. Much of the taste making here is thanks to fox nuts’ ability to pair well with not only flavors but aromas too. As a result, the indulgence begins with the aroma itself.”

Of nostalgia and foreplays

Foxnut pate mousse with caramelised foxnut at hyatt regency, dehradun.
Foxnut Pate Mousse with Caramelised Foxnut at Hyatt Regency, Dehradun.

The flavour-texture-aroma play is a facet at the core of Chef Abhinav Singh’s, Pastry Chef, Hyatt Regency, Dehradun, creation: Foxnut Pate Mousse with Caramelised Foxnut. The dessert, says Chef Singh, “is an ode to the different sweets that makhana has inspired especially the milk-based ones, which have given us the kheer and the rabri among others. One can experience how this seemingly tasteless ingredient when paired right not only adds the richness but also textures that make for a pleasurable, less guilty treat.”

Foxnut brookie with pistachio semifreddo sandwich at olive bar & kitchen.
Foxnut Brookie with Pistachio Semifreddo Sandwich at Olive Bar & Kitchen.

For Chef Dhruv Oberoi, Head Chef, Olive Bar & Kitchen that nostalgia translates into Foxnut Brookie with Pistachio Semifreddo Sandwich. In which, says Chef Oberoi, “I have replaced the typical refined flour with toasted fox nut flour and baked this gooey brookie (brownie + cookie) and layered it with a very decadent pistachio praline semifreddo. And fascinatingly, the one ingredient that not only supports this gluten-free, monk fruit-sweetened dessert is the makhana. You can taste not just each ingredient separately but also how well they come together with one bite of this sweet sandwich.”

Makhana is a crispy add-on to the duck khurchan at indian accent.
Makhana is a crispy add-on to the duck khurchan at Indian Accent.

The unique way in which makhana renders itself to dishes is, in fact, the other reason that the Mithila special is such a key part of Indian Accent’s menu. Says Patna-born Chef Mehrotra, “Makhana is a big part of who I am, both as a person and as a chef. In fact, it is an extension of who I am, and thus is omnipresent in all our menus — be it as a dahi bara, as garnish to many of my mixed vegetable dishes, as a crispy add with the duck khurchan, as this chapati churan makhana snack for our bar or even as the makhana crème brulee which is an ode to the kheer I have had growing up. The other reason for making it an integral part is also to support the farmers who cultivate makhana. Even though it grows naturally, the process of extracting the white kernels from the seed is a tedious process and needs immense labour. This is one of the many reasons that makhana, in spite of growing wild in still ponds and water bodies, even back in the day fetched a premium.”

Madhulika dash
Known for her columns on food anthropology, Chefs’ Retreat and wellness-based experiential tables, Madhulika Dash has also been on the food panel of Masterchef India Season 4, a guest lecturer at IHM, and is currently part of the Odisha government’s culinary council.

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